The first two questions face anyone who cares to distinguish the real from the unreal and the true from the false. The third question faces anyone who makes any decisions at all, and even not deciding is itself a decision.
Three Worlds, Three Views: Yet all residents of the region shared two important traits.
First, they lived and worked in a natural environment unlike any other in the American colonies. Second, like humans everywhere, their presence on the landscape had profound implications for the natural world. Exploring the ecological transformation of the colonial South offers an opportunity to examine the ways in which three distinct cultures—Native American, European, and African—influenced and shaped the environment in a fascinating part of North America.
The Native American World Like natives elsewhere in North America, those in the South practiced shifting seasonal subsistence, altering their diets and food gathering techniques to conform to the changing seasons. In spring, a season which brought massive runs of shad, alewives, herring, and mullet from the ocean into the rivers, Indians in Florida and elsewhere along the Atlantic coastal plain relied on fish taken with nets, spears, or hooks and lines.
In autumn and winter—especially in the piedmont and uplands—the natives turned more to deer, bear, and other game animals for sustenance. Because they required game animals in quantity, Indians often set light ground fires to create brushy edge habitats and open areas in southern forests that attracted deer and other animals to well-defined hunting grounds.
The natives also used fire to drive deer and other game into areas where the animals might be easily dispatched. To clear farmland, the natives used fire and stone axes to remove smaller brush and timber. They then stripped the bark a process known as girdling from larger trees so that they sprouted no leaves and eventually died.
Native farmers primarily women then planted corn, beans, and squash together in hills beneath the dead and dying trees.
Farming seems to have allowed native populations to increase in the millennium before European contact. Some of the larger native cultures probably numbered in the tens of thousands. Old fields then had to lie fallow until they recovered some fertility and could be planted again.
In addition, the natives had to store seeds, manage harvests, and distribute surplus crops, all of which required complex social and political organization. And, as several southeastern cultures seem to have discovered, a diet too rich in corn led to nutritional deficiencies and poor health.
Thus, agriculture had to be blended proper proportion with hunting, fishing, and gathering wild foods in order to ensure survival.
Lean times were inevitable. However, they did not regard land as property that could be transferred in perpetuity to another individual or group. Native culture also did not encourage the unrestricted accumulation of land or other material goods.
For most southern Indians, an ideal chieftain or leader was one who regularly distributed great stores of food, animal skins, or other valuable items within the community. Generosity—not individual wealth—conferred status, fostered allegiances, and helped maintain the communal good.
Long before the arrival of Europeans, native people traded items between themselves and with more distant cultures. Trade, however, was more than simply an economic enterprise.
Before any items changed hands, traders often ate together, smoked tobacco, or practiced other rituals designed to indicate friendship. In such an atmosphere of hospitality the exchange of goods became a means for expressing good will, a vehicle for negotiation, and a way to engage in diplomacy.
Native people believed that everything in nature—plants and animals as well as inanimate objects such as rocks and shells—possessed spiritual power. Consequently, those who hunted animals, farmed, or gathered wild foods had to observe certain guidelines and practice particular rituals designed to demonstrate respect for the spiritual world.Shortage of Natural Resources Shortage of natural resource will undoubtedly affect future competence of our environment.
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A natural disaster is any natural phenomenon which causes such widespread human material or environmental losses that the stricken community cannot recover without external assistance. Free natural resources papers, essays, and research papers. My Account.
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