Download PDF A community of practice story A group of internal auditors in the public sector from different countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia were having their 34th official meeting. For seven years now they had been coming together to hear how others in the region were engaged in internal audit and to create manuals and other publications that they felt were missing from their profession. Only a few of the original members were still part of the group, but the shared work, stories, and artifacts created over time gave their meetings a sense of continuity and purpose.
Morrison and Merith A. Cosden Abstract This article uses the concepts of risk and resiliency to frame our understanding of how having a learning disability affects nonacademic outcomes such as emotional adjustment, family functioning, adolescent problems of school dropout, substance abuse and juvenile delinquency, and adult adaptation.
The presence of a learning disability viewed as a risk factor that, in and of itself, does not predict positive negative outcomes. Rather, other risk and protective factors, as highlighted in the literature, interact with the presence of a learning disability to facilitate or impede adjustment.
These risk and protective factors may be internal characteristics of -the individual or external characteristics of the family, school and community environments.
Implications for the development of proactive interventions and areas for future research are discussed. Today's children and youth are faced with many challenges, including changing family constellations, economic hardship, exposure to violence, availability of drugs and alcohol, and a general loosening of community bonds.
This article will examine how stressors, throughout the life cycle, affect the emotional and societal adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities.
This article will address broader outcomes that are also related to the individual's ability to function effectively in society. As noted by Bender and Wallserious intra- and interpersonal problems, including loneliness, Online teacher learning communities a literature review, suicide, and delinquency, are common among individuals with learning disabilities.
Recent theories of risk and resiliency, based on early work by Garmezy, Masten, and Tellegen and Rutterprovide a framework for understanding the complex factors that influence the adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities.
A review of current models Garmezy defined risk factors as those that are associated with the increased likelihood of an individual developing an emotional or behavioral disorder in comparison with a randomly selected person from the general population. Keogh and Weisner defined risk as "a11 negative or potentially negative condition that impedes or threatens normal development" p.
Ramey, Trohanis, and Hostler suggested that risk is associated with the likelihood of future development of a handicap. We note here that risk has become a catch-all term for a multitude of conditions that may lead to negative outcomes and that attention should be paid to specifying outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes.
Common risk factors in a child's developmental path include temperament Werner, ; developmental delay Ramey et al. Being of the male gender has also been identified as a risk factor for developmental delay and developmental psychopathology Rutter, ; Werner, This fact is especially pertinent given the predominance of boys who are identified as having a learning disability.
Environmental risk factors for delay and psychopathology include chronic poverty Garmezy et al. For these outcomes, different factors come into play. For example, the work of J.
David Hawkins and colleagues on adolescent alcohol and other drug abuse has emphasized the risks of negative peer influence, lack of normative expectations for nonuse, and alienation from or lack of bonding to school, family and community.
As indicated, in studying risk factors, it is important to specify "'at risk" for what? In this article, we will focus on the additional internal and external risk factors that may interact with the learning disability to create socioemotional complications or societal maladjustments.
Garmezy and Masten defined resilience as a "process of, or capacity for, or the outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging and threatening circumstances" p. Zimmerman and Arunkumar described resiliency as the ability to spring back from adversity or "those factors and processes that interrupt the trajectory from risk to problem behavior or psychopathology and thereby result in adaptive outcomes even in the presence of challenging and threatening circumstances" p.
Garmezyin turn, categorized protective factors leading to resilience as a child factors, such as positive temperament and social competence; b family factors including supportive parent s and consistent rule setting; and c community factors, including positive relationships with significant adults and supportive school environments.
While many risk and protective factors have been identified, no one factor has been directly associated with the development of later problems Pellegrini, learning community’ (where teachers collaborate to reinvent practice and share professional growth).
At the heart of the concept, however, is the notion of community. This review paper discusses the background and development of professional learning communities. It Professional Learning Community, Literature Review, Professional Learning Development, Three models, Common Core Curriculum Standards teacher professional learning (McLaughlin & Talbert, ).
Locating learning in teachers’ communities of practice: Opening up problems of analysis in records of everyday work, Teaching and Teacher Education 18(8), – Google Scholar Leithwood K., Jantzi D.
and Steinbach R. (). This review of the literature on online PLCs responds to a request from district and school administrators in the Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic Region for infor- mation on using online PLCs to engage their teachers in professional development.
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DEFINING A PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITY A LITERATURE REVIEW Author: Rosemary Reichstetter, Ed.D. SUMMARY Summarizing a nonexhaustive review of the literature, the following definition is suggested for.