An introduction to the history of the european union

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An introduction to the history of the european union

In a historic referendum in JuneAustrian voters indicated their desire to join the EU, and in January Austria became a member. The following year, Austrians commemorated 1, years of common history. At the end of the war, several western European countries sought closer economic, social, and political ties to achieve economic growth and military security and to promote a lasting reconciliation between France and Germany.

The ECSC created a free-trade area for several key economic and military resources: To manage the ECSC, the treaty established several supranational institutions: A series of further international treaties and treaty revisions based largely on this model led eventually to the creation of the EU.

The EEC created a common market that featured the elimination of most barriers to the movement of goods, services, capital, and labour, the prohibition of most public policies or private agreements that inhibit market competition, a common agricultural policy CAPand a common external trade policy.

Signing of the Treaty of Rome, March 25, AP Images The treaty establishing the EEC required members to eliminate or revise important national laws and regulations.

An introduction to the history of the european union

In particular, it fundamentally reformed tariff and trade policy by abolishing all internal tariffs by July It also required that governments eliminate national regulations favouring domestic industries and cooperate in areas in which they traditionally had acted independently, such as international trade i.

The treaty called for common rules on anticompetitive and monopolistic behaviour and for common inland transportation and regulatory standards.

The CAP, which was implemented in and which became the costliest and most controversial element of the EEC and later the EU, relied on state intervention to protect the living standards of farmers, to promote agricultural self-sufficiency, and to ensure a reliable supply of products at reasonable prices.

To advise the Commission and the Council of Ministers on a broad range of social and economic policies, the treaty created an Economic and Social Committee. It also combined the councils of the three organizations into a common Council of Ministers.

The Commission officially known as the European Commission consists of a permanent civil service directed by commissioners. It has had three primary functions: Initially, commissioners were appointed by members to renewable four-year terms, which were later extended to five years.

In consultation with member governments, the president appoints the heads of the Directorate-Generals, which manage specific areas such as agriculture, competition, the environmentand regional policy. The Commission has shared its agenda-setting role with the European Council not to be confused with the Council of European organization that is not an EU bodywhich consists of the leaders of all member countries.

Established inthe European Council meets at least twice a year to define the long-term agenda for European political and economic integration. The European Council is led by a president, an office that originally rotated among the heads of state or heads of government of member countries every six months.

Upon the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty inthe presidency was made permanent, with the officeholder being selected by European Council members. The composition of the council changes frequently, as governments send different representatives depending on the policy area under discussion.

All community legislation requires the approval of the council. The president of the council, whose office rotates among council members every six months, manages the legislative agenda. Council meetings are chaired by a minister from the country that currently holds the presidency.

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The exception to this rule is the Foreign Affairs Council, which, since the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, is under the permanent supervision of the EU high representative for foreign affairs and security policy.

The Common Assembly, renamed the European Parliament inoriginally consisted of delegates from national parliaments. Beginning inmembers were elected directly to five-year terms.

The Parliament is organized into transnational party groups based on political ideology—e. Until the legislature served only as a consultative body, though in it was given joint decision-making power with the Council of Ministers over community expenditures.

Eight impartial advocates-general assist the ECJ by presenting opinions on cases before the court. The ECJ has established two important legal doctrines.The Hague Congress was a pivotal moment in European federal history, A close fiscal integration with the introduction of the euro was not matched by institutional oversight making things more troubling.

Three pillars of the European Union: European Communities. The European Union (EU) was created by the Maastricht Treaty on Nov. 1, It's a political and economic union between European countries that sets policies concerning the members’ economies, societies, laws, and, to some extent, security.

Jan 01,  · European Union; Beethoven, Ludwig vonThe “Ode to Joy” from Ludwig von Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 is the anthem of the European Union.

European Economic CommunityMap showing the composition of the European Economic Community (EEC) from , when it was formed by the members of the European Coal.

European Union: Introduction Initial discussions for a regional union in Europe began in , in the aftermath of World War Two to promote stability and economic cooperation between member states. The European Union (EU) economy consists of an Internal Market and the EU is represented as a unified entity in the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Currency The official currency of the European Union is the euro used in all its documents and policies. The European Union: A Very Short Introduction INTL JNP55 This small volume (less than pages) takes a look at the evolution of the EU from its humble beginnings as the European Steel and Coal Community in to the behemoth organization it has become.

The history of the European Union - EUROPA | European Union